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  • user 1:01 am on 4th June 2020 Permalink | Reply  

    Why should the world care about the environment in places like Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Rwanda? 

    CARING ABOUT OUR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT

    Global warming is a threat to the entire human and animal population on earth and wherever there is an environmental degradation of soil and water such as in Mozambique, Rwanda, and Zimbabwe, there exists more potential for Global Warming. Many other environmental hazards such as war, economic instability, a depletion of fresh water, endangered species, poverty, more disease, and air/water pollution also result from the types of land and water misuse that have happened in these African countries.

    In Mozambique, Rwanda, and Zimbabwe there has been a lot of war and strife, thus upsetting the natural order of the environment with poaching for elephant tusks, mismanagement of land use, improper irrigation practices, and deforestation. Due to the incorrect land use desertification takes place.

    Desertification is the transformation of habitable land into desert by climatic change, improper land use, over cultivation, deforestation, poor irrigation practices, overgrazing, drought, burning of extensive areas, overpopulation, too much herding, overstocking or removal of protective vegetation, clearcutting and exposure to direct sunlight,

    When desertification takes place “soil loses nutrient value and erodes because there is no cycling of dead leaves/plant material or roots to hold on to the soil;” and “rainfall causes soil to wash away leading to infertility of the land.” (http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/glossary).

    Mozambique, Rwanda, and Zimbabwe are examples of these types of land degradation that are going on in many other parts of the world. We as a people should be concerned because we need pure water to drink, we need good food, we need air to breathe, we need to fight cancer and other dangerous diseases, and we need a good quality of life free from economic stresses.

    WHY SHOULD WE BE CONCERNED ABOUT THESE THINGS?

    Why should we be concerned about water, for instance? Neither we nor our planet will continue to exist without water. Water sustains all life. It sustains animal, plant, and human life. When we don’t care about what we do to the land we destroy our drinking water. Less drinking water in one place means less drinking water in another place.

    What about food? When we don’t care about what is done to the land we allow natural plant species to be killed off and suffocated, never again to reproduce. Plants and specialized plants are important to our survival. Plants growing in the wild are unique and important due to the natural resistance they can build up against predators and pests.

    Today many plants and seeds are genetically altered to produce higher yield, resistance to climate, predators, etc. but with genetic alteration comes weaker plants that only survive a generation or two. And the only place to find new plants is in the wild untamed areas of the world where unique species evolve along with their natural resistance to predators.

    What about War? How can the destruction of land and habitats create war? People need food and water. These are very basic needs. When their source of food and water is depleted they will look for other places that offer food and water. This can be the beginning of a war with people fighting for the right to use land.

    Why is war in another place a concern for us? If wars become too destructive we get involved and send our soldiers to help fight the war. Thus we lose some of our best citizens to war.

    What does destructive land use have to do with the economy? The economy is based on how well a country utilizes its resources. If land is destroyed there may be no resources to use or to trade with. The country becomes dependent on other countries for subsistence. If the country is dependent on other countries, we are also involved. Today when our economy suffers so do other economies and vice versa. We are a global economic system. It is important for countries to become economically independent so that their fit into the global economic system is good. They can not do this if they are impoverished because they have destroyed their land.

    What about disease? How does improper land use contribute to disease? There are many ways. Water can become stagnant and become a breeding ground for the malarial mosquito.

    Water can become so polluted that it carries dangerous disease germs and people die from drinking contaminated water.

    Over 2000 anti-cancer species have been found in the rainforests. Allowing deforestation, clear cutting, and burning may destroy these species forever. All people the world over are looking for a supreme cancer cure. Perhaps there may even be a cure for AIDS in the wild, untouched areas of the world. But if these areas are continually destroyed by mismanaged land use, we may never find a cure.

    Poverty results in many environmental misuses. Land is deforested and picked dry. In turn, when the land is deforested and picked dry, there is more poverty. Once there is no land for growing food or harvesting wild food, people starve. So desertification and poverty form a vicious circle of more and more poverty and more and more desertification.

    Poverty everywhere affects us. It diminishes the world economy. It is the beginning of war and cruel dictatorships. War and dictatorships produce unrest throughout our world.

    LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT MOZAMBIQUE

    Mozambique’s natural hazards are droughts, cyclones, and floods in the central and southern provinces. Natural hazards such as these can put greater pressure on the stability of the land and in themselves contribute to desertification and erosion. And indeed, their civil war and drought has resulted in desertification, surface and coastal water pollution, and elephant poaching for ivory.

    Mozambique has made great strides since its independence from Portugal in 1975, when it was then one of the world’s poorest countries. However, Mozambique is today still dependent on foreign assistance and most citizens are below the poverty level. There is a substantial trade imbalance and the unemployment rate is 21%.

    ZIMBABWE

    Zimbabwe’s natural hazard is droughts. Land use is characterized by deforestation, soil erosion, land degradation, water pollution, and poor mining practices. The poaching of the Black Rhinoceros is an environmental activity that has depleted the Black Rhino almost to extinction in this area, which once had the highest concentration of Black Rhino.

    The Economy is characterized by an unsustainable fiscal deficit, overvalued official exchange rate, hyperinflation, and bare store shelves. The inflation rate is 6000% in 2007 due to the Central Bank printing money to fund the deficit. The official exchange rate fell from approximately one Zimbabwean dollar per U. S. dollar in 2003 to more than 17,500 per U. S. dollar in 2007.

    RWANDA

    Rwanda experienced bitter civil war between 1990 and 1994 with the mass genocide of 800,000 Tutsies and 2 million Hutu fleeing to neighboring countries. There is still unrest with insurgents in the Democratic Republic of the Congo determined to take back Rwanda.

    Their natural hazards are droughts and the volcanic Viringa Mountains. Their environmental issues are deforestation, overgrazing, soil exhaustion, soil erosion, and poaching.

    Rwanda is a poor rural country with 90% of the population engaged in subsistence agriculture. The 1994 genocide contributed to the economic instability in this area. Food production and population growth is not equal and Rwanda receives aid from the IMF – World Bank. Economic growth is hampered by energy shortages, inadequate transportation to other countries, and the instability of neighboring states.

    CARING FOR OUR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT SHOULD BE ACTIVE

    How do we actively care for our global environment? There are many things we can do as citizens of the world to care for the people in Mozambique, Rwanda, and Zimbabwe; and in many other parts of the world.

    We can stop the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming by driving environmentally friendly cars and recycling our waste products. In turn the countries with densely populated forests need to engage in the reforestation of depleted forests to help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide that enters the air causing global warming. We can help them do this by becoming actively involved.

    Global warming causes climate change which upsets the natural order of weather conditions and causes agricultural communities a loss of their livelihood. According to Jan Egeland, Norwegian Peace Mediator, climate change is more than an environmental issue — it is a question of “War and Peace.”

    We can actively get involved with communities around the world and in our own backyard by volunteering, donating, and becoming members of the various organizations set up to alleviate intolerable environmental conditions. We can start our own organizations. We can do research and write books or articles to educate the general public about environmental pollution. We can actually go to some of these places to help in setting up sustainable agriculture and economic initiatives.

    Reporters, Stephanie Haines and Jeff Barbee have been instrumental in helping to get environmental actions started in Mozambique, Rwanda, and Zimbabwe by writing their articles that have been published in various magazines, newsletters, and online. This is caring in an active way. We should all be doing our part to care for our global environment.

    In Zimbabwe their focus is Victoria Falls in Hwange National Park which was once a prime conservation and tourist spot. In Mozambique it is Gorongoso National Park, which the Carr Foundation has now pledged $1.2 million per year to be used for reconstruction, rehabilitation, of upgrading of park facilities. The park was destroyed during the 16 year civil war.

    The references listed below can also be used to find your way in contributing to your concern for the environment. You can volunteer, join, donate, or find a new career.

    References:
    Institute for War and Peace
    Environmental Africa
    CIA factsheet — Mozambique
    United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
    The Nature Conservancy
    Gore, Al, Earth in the Balance, Houghton Mifflin Company, NY, NY, 1992.

    Copyright © 2020 Carroll Colette J. Yorgey

     
  • user 12:54 am on 8th April 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: northern hawaiian ecosystems ecology, nwhi   

    Ecology of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 

    By Carroll Yorgey

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) located in the Pacific Oceania represent the oldest part of the Hawaiian Island chain but are located 1200 miles northwest of the main Hawaiian Islands.

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands comprise a vibrant and diverse ecosystem of

    • coral reefs
    • islands
    • atolls
    • shoals

    Over 7,000 species of marine life make their home in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Now a national monument called the Papahanaumokuakea Monument, the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands are a protected ecological and wildlife sanctuary. The NWHI islands are one of the oldest environmental habitats in the world and are home to a huge diversity of wildlife beginning with the lowest members of the food chain – the coral reefs and all the sea creatures and plants that make the coral reefs their home.

    There are over 3.5 million acres of coral colonies throughout the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands that are home to over 150 species of red, green, and brown algae.

    The waters include seven species of sea turtles with all of them endangered except one. Two types of coral are also on the endangered species list. What happens when the coral colonies that are the base of the food chain are wiped out?

    Ninety percent of the world’s Green Sea Turtles come to nest in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. But the Green Sea Turtle is endangered. Hawaiian Monk Seals are also endangered.

    The largest colony of Laysan Albatross in the world make their home in the NWHI at the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.

    The are also many diverse species of whales, dolphins, and seals in the waters of the NWHI.

    For marine birds who live mostly on the water, the NWHI is their main foraging and breeding area.

    Environmental pollution in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    The problem is the vast amount of pollution in the form of trash and garbage that ends up on the shores of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    As stated in a National Geographic video about the NWHI, the region between the Hawaiian Islands and the west coast of the Americas is the “largest marine trash dump in the world” and described also “like a giant toilet bowl that never gets flushed.”

    In the past ten years, 600 tons of trash have been removed from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Trash can be a fatal reality for sea birds who die from ingesting it as do other marine species.

    Although the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands are now protected as a US national monument there are still threats such as tourism, trash dumping by cruise liners, and the US Navy’s proposed expansion plans of their military training base in the Hawaiian Islands, according to conservationists and indigenous communities.

    References:

    http://www.kahea.org/issues/ocean-protection/northwestern-hawaiian-islands-1/nwhi-ecosystems

    Copyright © 2020 Carroll Colette J. Yorgey. Originally published in 2010.

     
  • user 12:20 am on 7th March 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: alternative energy   

    Basics of an Alternative Energy Home 

    By Carroll Yorgey

    The alternative energy home uses every possible method of conservation, relying on clean, safe energy.

    The characteristics of the alternative energy home are based on features and devices that provide the most reliable energy at the lowest cost. And cost means the cost of economics and also the cost to the environment.

    Solar energy for both heating and cooling

    The use of active or passive solar energy depends on the structure of the building; passive solar energy is the most cost-effective of the two.

    Water conservation

    Water conservation is very important in the alternative energy home, and a variety of water conservation techniques and devices are used.

    • waterless indoor toilets
    • water recycling
    • water conserving faucets and shower heads
    • low-flush toilet and flow-control faucets and shower heads – these types of water conservation devices can cut water usage by one-third
    • conserving water by using good plumbing techniques and practices such as immediately fixing leaks – a leaky faucet can add up to seven gallons of wasted water per day – a leaky toilet can waste up to 200 gallons of water per day
    • waste-water recycling
    • composting toilets
    • oxidizing toilets
    • portable flush toilets – for use in vacation homes or RVs
    • urinals if the population is all male – uses only about a pint of water per day

    Insulation

    Alternative energy homes use the required amount and type of insulation for both heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. Good insulation helps to improve the quality of passive solar energy.

    Glazed and energy-efficient windows

    Windows and glass should be glazed and facing south for optimum passive solar heating. Also, triple-pane energy efficient windows are used in the alternative energy home.

    Solar cooking

    Utilizing a solar oven or solar cooker can greatly improve the energy efficiency of your home – this is totally free cooking – no more cooking with gas or electric.

    Heat pumps

    Heat pumps are great for heating and cooling homes. They do use electric but can be assisted by groundwater and solar energy.

    High-efficiency fire places and multifuel furnaces

    Depending on the construction of the house, different types of heat sources may be necessary; or backup heat sources may be needed. In this case highly efficient fireplaces are used. In areas where there are many changing climates throughout the year the multifuel furnace is utilized using the type of fuel that corresponds to weather and sunlight conditions.

    Electricity generation by the homeowner

    The homeowner can save considerably by generating his own electricity if electricity is the source of energy utilized. The best way to produce electricity will be based on the the entire alternative home and the landscape of the area. These are the alternative ways of producing energy efficient electricity:

    • wind energy
    • wind mills
    • independent water power

    Appliances all rated energy efficient

    If using electricity all appliances are rated energy efficient meaning they will use the least amount of energy as possible.

    These are the characteristics of the alternative energy home. All parts of the home are built to enhance energy conservation. Even the types of material used to build the house such as roofing tiles and construction materials are rated the most highly energy efficient. Trained builders and architects of energy efficient alternative homes have at their disposal the most highly energy efficient materials to produce a truly alternative energy home.

    Reference:

    Coffee, Frank. 1981. The Self-Sufficient House. NY: Holt, Rinehart,and Winston.

    Copyright © 2020 Carroll Colette J. Yorgey

     
  • user 1:36 am on 13th February 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: ecological benefits of celibacy, st. valentine and mother earth   

    Ecological Benefits of Celibacy 

    Many problems are easier solved in well-chosen pairs. Marriages can be good for solving earth’s ecological crises. Yet, there are numerous ecological advantages to celibacy:

    — Less resources are used producing reproductive fluids and babies.

    — One avoids the indulgent consumerism commonly inspired or required by lovers.

    — No children are produced, and overpopulation is limited. Overpopulation is a serious problem when accompanied by demands for modern industrial lifestyles that destroy nature.

    — People with no children have more time and resources to invest in the welfare of humanity at large and all living beings.

    — Infatuation may cause indifference to ecological crises.

    — Relationships or sexual feelings may derange a person’s mind, preventing them from being reasonable and living in harmony with nature.

    About St. Valentine

    The noble martyr St. Valentine did not approve of fornication. He wanted all unmarried people to be celibate. For unmarried people to celebrate their carnal relationships on St. Valentine’s Day is an insult to the poor man and an expression of hatred for what he believed in.

    ”…the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord; and the Lord for the body.” — Corinthians 6:3

    By Nehemiah B. McDonald

     
  • user 6:13 pm on 13th December 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    State of the Modern World Address — December 2019 

    Fire In Australia

    Billionaires Prepare For the Future

    Informative Blog:

     
  • user 7:07 am on 7th October 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    Traditional Medicine Is Sustainable 

    Modern Health Care Provides Health At Expense of Future Generations

    Health Care is 8% of US Carbon Footprint

    Overuse of Antibiotics is Preparing Mankind for Superbug Scourge

    Climate Change is Killing People

    Traditional Medicine Is Sustainable

    Traditional Indian Medicine

    Traditional Greco-Arab Medicine

    Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Traditional American Medicine

    Interesting link: https://practicegreenhealth.org/why-sustainability

    By Edgar Smith

    Medicine Man
     
  • user 7:07 pm on 31st August 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    State of the Modern World Address — August 2019 

    Prometheus.
    “In the Western classical tradition, Prometheus became a figure who represented human striving, particularly the quest for scientific knowledge, and the risk of overreaching or unintended consequences.” — Wikipedia

    TECH

    Some Programmers Conspire To Serve Mother Nature

    https://fixathon.io/

    Your Email Inboxes Are Heating up the Planet

    https://blog.leavemealone.app/clean-your-inbox-save-the-planet/

    The Cost of Modern Tech and Luxuries: Slavery

    https://carrcenter.hks.harvard.edu/news/your-phone-tainted-misery-35000-children-congos-mines

    https://foodispower.org/human-labor-slavery/slavery-chocolate/

    https://labs.theguardian.com/unicef-child-labour/

    https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-05-01/chinese-factory-slave-explains-why-manufacturing-jobs-are-never-coming-back-america

    The Internet is Making Us Stupider

    Also available on Libgen.is. Give your spare money to charities!

    GLOBAL

    US Army Pollutes Like There’s No Tomorrow

    https://theconversation.com/us-military-is-a-bigger-polluter-than-as-many-as-140-countries-shrinking-this-war-machine-is-a-must-119269

    Humanity is Winning the War against Biodiversity

    Why We Need Biodiversity in Our Crops

    http://thescienceexplorer.com/nature/why-we-need-biodiversity-our-crops

    Global Food Crisis Ongoing

    https://duckduckgo.com/?q=drought&t=hr&iar=news&ia=news

    Rapid Mass Extinction of Languages and Cultural Diversity

    https://www.kcrw.com/culture/shows/scheer-intelligence/the-sordid-story-behind-the-mass-extinction-of-languages

    NORTH AMERICA

    Ongoing Destruction of Native American Biodiversity

    Rapid Deforestation of North American Rainforest

    Fruits and Vegetables Becoming Less Nutritious

    https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/soil-depletion-and-nutrition-loss/

    Agriculture Becoming Increasingly Toxic

    https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/aug/07/americas-dependence-on-pesticides-especially-neonics-is-a-war-on-nature

    GREENLAND

    Greenland is Melting!

    https://weather.com/photos/news/2019-08-20-greenland-melting-glaciers

    SOUTH AMERICA

    Monsters Burn the Amazon Forest Like Never Before

    https://www.npr.org/2019/08/19/752529425/brazils-amazon-rainforest-is-disappearing-under-president-jair-bolsonaro

    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-08-29/brazil-s-neighbors-are-also-burning-and-poisoning-the-amazon?srnd=markets-vp


    Amazonian Tribes Have Outdated Weaponry

    Brazilian Army Fights Fires

    https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/08/planes-dump-water-amazon-brazil-army-begins-fighting-fires-190826014239300.html

    ARCTIC

    The Arctic is Burning!

    RUSSIA

    Russia is burning!

    https://www.vox.com/2019/8/1/20750200/siberia-wildfire-russia-fire-smoke-trump-putin

    EUROPE

    Europe is Getting Really Hot!

    https://e360.yale.edu/digest/europe-is-warming-faster-than-even-climate-models-projected

    AFRICA

    Africa is Burning!

    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-08-23/more-fires-now-burning-in-angola-congo-than-amazon-maps

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8066871.stm

    CHILD-REARING

    Teach Your Kids How and Why To Grow Food

    https://www.motherearthnews.com/organic-gardening/children-growing-their-own-food-zbcz1811

    GREEK MYTHOLOGY

    In Greek mythology, the Titan Prometheus had a reputation as being something of a clever trickster, and he famously gave the human race the gift of fire and the skill of metalwork, an action for which he was punished by Zeus, who condemned Prometheus to being chained to a rock and having his liver eaten by an eagle every day, and then regenerated so it could be eaten again the next day, over and over and over again.

    “In the Western classical tradition, Prometheus became a figure who represented human striving, particularly the quest for scientific knowledge, and the risk of overreaching or unintended consequences.” — Wikipedia

    (Post by Edgar Smith)

     
  • Earthling 7:07 am on 7th July 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: CDC, drought, drought effects on crops, effects of drought, effects of drought of mosquito behavior, effects of drought on food prices, effects of drought on human mental health, , importance of water, , toxic chemicals in fish and drought   

    The health implications of severe drought 


    By Carroll Colette J. Yorgey

    Severe drought can be the catalyst for the spread of infectious disease, famine, and increased stress causing behavioral dysfunction in both humans, animals and insects. Severe drought impacts the lives of living creatures in many ways that are still not completely understood by professionals nor documented by statistics, according to an advanced study by the CDC (Center for Disease Control) in their publication titled “When Every Drop Counts: Protecting Public Health during Drought Conditions – A Guide for Public Health Professionals.”

    However, what is currently known regarding the effects of severe drought has been documented in this publication, and professionals from many agencies around the world are working on solutions and further knowledge regarding the effects of drought. According to the CDC, droughts and intense precipitation, due to climate change and the natural cycle of water distribution, may become more severe as life progresses further into the 21st century.

    Water, the essential ingredient to life
    Water is an essential ingredient to life
    . Without water humans, animals, and vegetation cannot survive. According to the CDC, “Water should be considered a scarce and valuable resource.”  Most of earth’s water is saltwater at 97 percent. The remaining drinkable fresh water is only three percent but most of that is locked in glaciers and ice.

    Respiratory effects of severe drought
    How does severe drought affect the health of human beings and animals alike? Severe drought caused by the lack of precipitation, which in turn with high temperatures causes wildfires to burn out of control, causing soil to dry up and the air to become polluted with more particulate matter, can cause respiratory problems in humans with chronic conditions such as asthma. Poor air quality can also cause respiratory infections such as bacterial pneumonia.

    Toxic chemicals in fish and shellfish

    What about fish trying to survive in dried up lakes, ponds, and streams, or ponds, rivers, and streams where the water is lower than normal?

    The livelihood of a community might rely on fishing as a main source of income or as a food staple. What happens to fish and humans when a severe drought has impacted this type of community?

    Toxic chemicals increase in lower water levels. These toxic chemicals accumulate in the local fish in higher levels than normal. When humans and other animals eat the fish exposed to concentrated levels of these toxins they can be exposed to increased levels of toxins that can cause illness. Drought causes higher water temperatures. These higher water temperatures can affect the spread of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases in fish and shellfish.

    Livestock
    Livestock can also be adversely affected by severe drought. Livestock can become “malnourished, diseased, and die.”

    Crops
    Crops are also affected negatively by severe drought, such as soybeans and corn. These are staple crops needed for both the feeding of livestock and humans. Hay fields normally foraged by livestock in their quest for food dry up, so how do livestock such as cows and pigs survive? Farmers might rely on irrigation and the recycling of water. But the recycling of water has its drawbacks such as being more susceptible to disease and pathogens such as salmonella and E. coli.

    The price of food
    When crops fail, the price of food rises, which impacts the ability of humans to buy nutritious foods, which can impact whole families in their ability to provide good meals for their children, causing malnutrition among humans.

    Mental health
    As farmers, horticulturists, gardeners, and other people are impacted by severe drought they may become despondent with mental conditions arising such as depression, anxiety, stress over financial conditions and food shortages. Drought can cause higher instances of suicide or suicidal behavior.

    Mosquito-borne illness
    Drought is also a cause of mosquito-borne illnesses such as West Nile Virus. The behavior of insects such as mosquitoes and ticks can also change with them looking for habitats that support their lifestyles. Mosquitoes may move closer to human areas where they can find dripping hoses or stagnant puddles causing increased incidences of humans contracting mosquito-borne disease. There may be increased contact of mosquitoes with birds, giving way to diseases such as St. Louis encephalitis.

    Conclusion

    Severe drought can cause many health and health-related conditions in humans and wildlife. It is important to understand that water is a precious resource and essential to life. Drought is a natural phenomenon, but can be exacerbated by humans trying to control natural ecosystems. According to the CDC, “urban expansion and development without regard to existing water supply and water system capacity can trigger a human induced drought.”

    Drought-caused illness is an important consideration to be made aware of. From crops that fail to dying livestock, from famine and malnutrition to mental health problems such as suicide and depression, severe drought has made its impact on the livelihood of both humans and wildlife around the world. The Southwestern states of the US have suffered considerably with crop failure and the resultant health and economic after-effects. With climate change and its effect on temperatures around the world, we may see more and more drought conditions causing famine, food shortages, economic failure, and greater incidences of drought-caused illness.

    Copyright © 2020 Carroll Colette J. Yorgey

     
  • Earthling 7:07 am on 7th June 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: causes of world hunger, , increasing food production, increasing hunger, population growth,   

    World Hunger Increasing despite Growth in Food Production 


    By Carroll Colette J. Yorgey

    World hunger keeps rising, especially in the developing world of the Indian subcontinent and sub-Saharan Africa, although there is steady growth in world food production. Food production is rising, but according to some sources it may peak due to climate change and global warming causing food production to fall even in the developed countries of which there is some indication that this is already beginning to happen. However, for now, world food production has been steadily rising, although falling in some areas such as in grains.

    Although there is steady growth in world food production, this growth may be concentrated in a few areas such as in developed countries as opposed to developing countries. Regional hunger and poverty is due to wars, political instability, and natural disasters. Also the population around the world is steadily rising, causing more food to be needed by all world peoples.

    Population Growth

    In all countries everywhere the population continues to grow, putting a strain on the world’s food supplies. Although a country may be at war, causing political instability, the citizens of that country continue to live their lives, marrying and having families. Therefore with more people each country will need more food. But if the country is poor, food supplies will dwindle. The people themselves may not have the power or the money to supply themselves with food. If the land has been ravished by a natural disaster there may be drought or flooding which will further deplete natural food supplies. They may be even cut off from foreign aid when there is war and political instability. Corrupt politicians who have decided to become the country’s dictators may receive food and distribute the food only to their select members of their elitist groups, thus depriving many citizens of any means of acquiring food to feed their families.

    Unstable Governments

    At the root of poverty and hunger in developing countries is war and political instability, which usually coincides with an unstable government. Without a stable government, the people may be subjected to an imbalance of power where only the elite governing faction of the country will receive needed food supplies.

    Unstable governments usually do not provide the infrastructure necessary to sustain natural disasters that can cause flooding and drought. Flooding and drought will make the regional areas where the people live unsuitable for farming and growing foods for the masses. The areas racked by floods in addition will also be disease ravaged causing even more hunger and poverty.

    Foreign aid in these cases will at best feed people as emergency relief. But in some cases foreign aid may not even get to the people due to war and political instability and the unstable government. One faction may prevent the aid from reaching starving people of another faction.

    Environmental Pollution

    When a country is devastated by disease caused by infrastructure that is lacking such as inadequate plumbing for clean water supplies, or flooded conditions that make the land unsuitable for farming,  or a cycle of disease, poverty, natural disaster, and environmental pollution coupled with population growth, these elements all work together to create more and more poverty and hunger. The water may become so contaminated as to not be suitable for drinking. Forests are depleted, causing soil erosion, and desertification.

    Therefore, although world food production is growing, world hunger has increased. World food production doesn’t account for regional food production. In developing countries as opposed to developed countries, due to a continuing cycle of natural disaster, unstable governments, and environmental degradation, these countries cannot sustain themselves, and the people also may not have the power or money to actively trade on the world market for imported food. Therefore they will rely on their own methods of supplying food, but many will go hungry.

    Copyright © 2018 Carroll Colette J. Yorgey

     
  • Earthling 7:07 am on 7th May 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: carbon offsetting, climate change economics, reducing carbon footprint   

    Carbon Offsets and Global Warming 

    Image from Sergey Kustov on Wikipedia, CC3 Licensed(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en)

    By Carroll Colette J. Yorgey

    Carbon Offsets are an attempt by various organizations, companies, and people to offset the amount of energy and pollutants they use, by buying into charitable causes that work to alleviate the disastrous effects of toxic chemicals spewed into the atmosphere with high energy use. This is seen as a positive step to alleviate the burden of global warming in the 21st century. At least something is being done.

    Carbon Neutral is the new catch phrase for carbon offsets. Airline companies, environmentalists, politicians, and entrepreneurs are getting into the act. It is something new for the consumer to purchase to alleviate his guilt in his use of carbon fuels and high-energy usage.

    Silverjet is the first trans-Atlantic carrier to offer the Carbon-Neutral airline package. Silverjet puts $28 of each round trip ticket into a global fund that gets rid of as much carbon dioxide as the plane generates.
    The idea is to sell carbon offsets in global warming projects in amounts that are equal to emissions generated by the buyer.

    So far the trade in carbon offsets amounts to $100 million per year. However there is a wide variation in pricing and the cheapest prices may not be legitimate.

    Americans average about 20 tons of carbon dioxide per year in heating and cooling their homes, driving cars, and flying in airplanes. Global citizens of the planet average 4.5 tons of carbon dioxide per year.

    That is a lot of carbon dioxide tonnage that is affecting global warming. Can the carbon offsets equal this amount? And shouldn’t the offsets be more than equal amounts, because we are trying to stop the terrible effects of CO2 on the environment, which is causing global warming? If the offsets only equal the dangerous emissions, that is equivalent to breaking even. We need to go beyond the break-even point to achieve substantial reductions in global warming.

    Critics of offsetting worry about people thinking they have solved the problem with the offset. People might forget about conservation and the effects of global warming. They might not work to reduce their energy consumption or CO2 emissions.

    So far customers for carbon offsets are in the low tens of thousands. The most important aspect of carbon offsetting is that people must realize that they need to cut their energy consumption by about 25% and stop using vehicles that spew so much CO2 into the environment.

    Copyright © 2018 Carroll Colette J. Yorgey

     
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